Sunday, April 20, 2008

Have Scientific Studies Shown That Chelation Therapy Is Effective?

What is Arteriosclerosis and How is it Treated?

When we are born our arteries are basically free of obstructions and have a high degree of elasticity. They expand and contract with each pump of the heart; the blood with its life carrying nutrients and oxygen is carried to every cell and every tissue of the body. There is a tremendous amount of chemical activity going on constantly in the cells that line these vessels. If the enzyme systems, which operate in these arterial cell membranes, become blocked by heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, or aluminum, or by deposits of calcium in the membrane, the rate of chemical activity slows down. Fatty materials such as cholesterol begin to bind with the calcium atoms. This is the beginning of what is called a "plaque". This process is known to start in infancy. "Fatty streaks" have been seen in the arteries of infants during autopsies. It progresses insidiously. Autopsies done on young American men killed in the Korean and Viet Nam wars revealed 80 percent of these men, whose average age was about 21, had significant arteriosclerotic occlusive disease. In many cases, there was a 50 to 75 percent blockage of one or more of their coronary arteries. The lack of symptoms, until there is a 75-90% occlusion of a given artery, often makes this a most deadly process with sudden death frequently being the first symptom.

Depending on the location of the occlusion, the result of a total blockage is known as a heart attack, stroke, or arterial occlusion in the leg (see Figure 1). Total occlusions necessitate attempts to reestablish blood flow through by-pass procedures.

Figure 1
Locations of common sites of arterial obstructive disease.

Before total obstructions occur attempts are often made to widen the diameter of arteries or prevent clotting through the use of various drugs. While both drug measures and operations may temporarily improve circulation, they often only postpone the inevitable, total blockage of the artery. Drugs and surgery generally have no effect on the disease process itself.

Studies have shown that the use of a vegetarian diet along with an exercise program can halt the progression of plaque formation in arteries and in some cases actually reverse the obstructions.1

The approach used at Waters Preventive Medical Center includes the dietary — and exercise — oriented approach above in addition to a nutritional supplement program and intravenous infusions of vitamins, minerals and a chelating agent known as E.D.T.A. (Ethylene diamine tetraacetric acid).

What is Chelation Therapy?

The word "Chelation" comes from the Greek word "chele" which means a claw of a crab or lobster and implies a strong, pincer-like grasping. In the case of Chelation Therapy, the grasping is done by a chelating agent and the object grasped is a metal atom. This chelating agent forms a very stable chemical complex with a mineral or metal ion known as a "heterocyclic ring structure." There are many examples of chelates in nature such as magnesium in the chlorophyll molecule in plants, iron in the hemoglobin of blood cells in man and other higher organisms and the incorporation of cobalt in the vitamin B-12 molecule.

There are many "Chelating Agents" in nature such as vitamin C, sulphur-containing amino acids and many enzymes. Unless some of the enzymes contain a firmly bound metal atom they will not be active or have a decrease in their activity. Even the usual drugs used in medical practice in the treatment of disease are often dependent upon Chelation processes for their action. A new science has emerged which deals with the subject of Chelation and is know as Complexion or Bioinorganic Chemistry.2 The basis of this field is the inorganic chemical principles contained in and well explained by Ligand Field Theory. This theory deals with the mechanisms by which organic chemicals form three-dimensionally stable structures with metal ions through sharing of electrons. The resultant compounds are very stable and will only break apart with difficulty. A review of the science underlying Chelation Therapy may be found in a treatise by Bruce W. Halstead, M.D.3

The principles, which are the basis of Complexion Chemistry or Ligand Field Theory, are among the most fundamental in nature. In view of the array of nature's applications the exploitation of these principles and concepts in the treatment of human disease is not only logical but also predictable.

In short, Chelation is a process whereby the metals are held and positioned by body chemicals so as to facilitate chemical reactions, which are essential to life. Chelation Therapy is the introduction of naturally occurring or synthetic organic chemicals into the human body in order to facilitate chemical reactions, which lead to the discharge of poisonous metals from the body and the rearrangement of essential metals in the body for the promotion of life's chemical reactions.

History of Development of E.D.T.A. and its Medical Usage

In the 1930s German chemists were searching for a compound which would bind calcium and other metals in order to prevent staining of printed-pattern linens with calcium from hard waters.

This basic research was being carried on independently in the United States by Frederick Bersworth who after much trial and error with different compounds finally patented E.D.T.A.

In the late 1950s Dr. Clarke at Providence Hospital in Detroit in collaboration with Martin Rubin, PhD., Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at Georgetown University, began using E.D.T.A. intravenously to remove lead from people who had been poisoned in the automotive and other industries. He noted that indeed people with high lead levels in the circulation and their tissues began to excrete large amounts of lead in the urine after the administration of E.D.T.A. and began to feel better when the lead burden was removed. Coincidentally, the older patients who had arteriosclerosis involving the brain, heart, and peripheral vessels began to experience an improvement of their symptoms related to arteriosclerosis. There was an improvement in their angina, exercise tolerance and in their symptoms of Cerebrovascular insufficiency.4-7

A number of American physicians who had been given no hope by their own M.D.s for various circulatory conditions began to undergo Chelation Therapy in Dr. Clarke's office. They usually improved and then went back to their own towns and began giving this treatment to their own patients.

What is Chelation Therapy Used For?

Chelation Therapy is used as the primary treatment for heavy metal intoxication by lead, cadmium, aluminum, mercury, arsenic, and even iron.8-10 At this time, it is also used to treat occlusive vascular diseases in conjunction with diet, nutritional supplements, and lifestyle changes. Because Chelation Therapy appears to improve circulation and reduce toxic chemical reactions in the body, it has also been used successfully for arthritis, diabetes, high blood pressure, and eye diseases such as macular degeneration.11-18

Can Chelation Be Used as a Preventive Measure?

It is often a good idea to undergo a series of Chelation treatments and maintenance therapy to prevent or delay the onset of vascular disease and the aging process.

This is especially important if there is a strong family history of these types of problems. Dr. Steven Davies of London, England has shown that heavy metals accumulate in human tissues throughout life and we can assume these poisons have deleterious effects on our health.

Evidence from a Swiss study indicated a reduced cancer incidence in patients who were chelated preventively.19

How Does Chelation Work?

Numerous theories have been erected to explain the obvious benefits of Chelation Therapy. The following is a list of possible mechanisms, all of which have been partially proven by research studies.

1) Heavy metals such as Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Arsenic, Nickel, and Antimony have been shown to relentlessly accumulate in human tissue over a lifetime. Aluminum has been implicated as a possible factor in the causation of Alzheimer's disease. These poisonous metals disrupt the normal biochemical processes. They insinuate themselves into the active sites of enzymes thereby altering such enzymes' activities, and they initiate "free radical reactions," which produce noxious chemicals that damage cellular structures such as proteins, cell membranes and DNA. The results at the level of the whole organism are the development of degenerative diseases-arteriosclerosis, arthritis and cancers. The removal of these poison metals with Chelation Therapy is probably a major mechanism by which Chelation normalizes biochemical activity thereby improving circulation and energy.

2) Essential metals such as iron, copper, manganese, and zinc are rearranged in the various body compartments resulting in improved enzyme activity at the cellular level.

3) Calcium deposits are removed from vessels and intracellular membranes leading to increased blood flow and better functioning of the enzyme systems imbedded in those membranes. The result is, again, improved organ function, vitality and energy level.

4) The blood clotting elements known as platelets are made less sticky, reducing clots in the vessels and leading to improved circulation and reduction in the thromboses that occur during heart attacks and strokes.

5) E.D.T.A. binds trace elements like iron, which are known initiators of "free radical reactions". These free radical reactions are thought to be the chemical origin of arteriosclerosis, cancer, and inflammations. In general, they are thought to be the cause of aging and its concomitant degenerative processes. With respect to #3 above, realize that a slight increase in the internal diameter of an occluded vessel results in a large increase in blood flow through that artery.

In fact, doubling the vessel's diameter results in a 16 to 32–fold increase in blood flow. If even a 10% increase in diameter occurs, there is still 1 l/2 to 3 times the blood flow. Therefore, a vessel doesn't need to be completely unclogged in order for the patient to experience a reduction in his symptoms.

Figure 2
A small increase in the diameter of an obstructed artery
results in a large increase in blood flow throught that artery.

The positive effects of E.D.T.A. Chelation Therapy are probably dependent both on decreasing the blood vessel occlusion and on the cellular and subcellular level effects of this agent. There are also probably many other unknown mechanisms.

Have Scientific Studies Shown That Chelation Therapy Is Effective?

If you call the American Medical Association or ask your cardiologist if Chelation Therapy can help arteriosclerosis chances are they will report that no studies have been done to document effectiveness of this treatment. In fact, studies proving effectiveness of E.D.T.A. in removing calcium deposits from tissues and reducing chest pain in heart patients date back to the 1960s.22-40

Unfortunately, in the early years excessive doses of E.D.T.A. were used and adverse reactions followed. No nutritional support was given during therapy at that time and treatments were given on a daily basis, five or six days per week. As a result of the publication of a very few reports of poor results with Chelation the interest in treatment waned for a time. However, because of the dramatic improvement in so many patients, doctors continued to give the Therapy.

By the beginning of the 1970s, a professional organization of Chelation therapists was founded known today as The American College for Advancement in Medicine. Doctors from that group began to publish their findings.

H. Richard Casdorph, M.D., PhD. Published two articles in 1981. The first one documented an increase in left heart function immediately after a Chelation treatment using a radionuclide scan. The second study, again using a nuclear scan for measurements, revealed a highly significant increase in blood flow to the brain in a group of 15 patients after an average of 20 Chelation treatments.23 All 15 patients also had improvement in their symptoms.

A study done by Drs. McDonagh, Rudolph and Cheraskin in 1982 revealed a definite increase in blood flow to the brain using measurements of blood flow to the eyes.25 This study helps us to understand why Chelation Therapy often improves vision. These authors did two more studies in 198226 and 198327 showing improvement in kidney function using Chelation Therapy. This is contrary to the often-repeated claim by opponents of Chelation Therapy, that E.D.T.A. is dangerous to the kidneys. As long as the treatment is given slowly and in the recommended dosage even patients with moderate kidney dysfunction can be helped.

Drs. Casdorph and Farr published a report in 1983 of four patients with gangrene of the lower extremities who were treated with Chelation Therapy, nutritional supplements and hyperbaric oxygen.28 All four patients had been told to undergo amputations by other doctors and sought an alternative in E.D.T.A. Chelation. All four patients were successful in avoiding amputation and follow up more than a year later revealed all patients to be doing well and free of pain in their legs. McDonagh et al published another study in 198529 on 77 elderly patients with documented occlusive vascular disease of the lower extremities. After 60 days of treatment, Doppler Ultrasound blood pressure measurements revealed a highly significant improvement in blood flow to the feet.

Studies by Dr. Van der Schaar in Holland and Dr. Kindness here in the U.S. were reported at the third International Chelation Conference at Georgetown University in Washington D.C. in July 1989.30 Both studies revealed that E.D.T.A. infusion changes the "stickiness" of clotting factors in the blood known as platelets. This then results in a decrease in clot formation. Clot formation is thought to be the mechanism of various inflammatory disorders as well as heart attacks and strokes. Dr. Van der Schaar was a busy cardiovascular surgeon until 1985 when he began to experiment with Chelation Therapy. He has Chelated thousands of patients and only rarely does bypass surgery anymore.

Brazilian doctor, G.P. Deucher, published an article in 1987 documenting increased discharge of heavy metals such as iron in the urine after infusion of E.D.T.A. This finding correlated with a decrease in cardiovascular symptoms.

In 1985, I published a study done with Drs. John Bederka and Simca Brudno revealing large increases in aluminum output in the urine after infusion of E.D.T.A.31 Many researchers believe that accumulation of aluminum in the brain may be at least partially responsible for premature senility (Alzheimer's disease).

In 1989, Efrain Olszewer, M.D. and James P. Carter, M.D., DrPh published a retrospective study of 2,870 patients who had undergone Chelation Therapy in Brazil.

Patient response was evaluated by Doppler blood flow studies, EEG, motor and sensory tests, cognitive evaluation and memory tests. Overall, 68.8% of the patients had a "marked improvement", while 20.4% had a "good improvement" as defined in the study. This represented an overall improvement of 91.2%. Patients with heart or peripheral vessel disease fared better than those with carotid or cerebro-vascular obstruction.34

Drs. Rudolph and McDonagh treated 31 patients with Chelation Therapy for arteriosclerosis of the carotid arteries and published their results in 1991. Evaluation of the degree of obstruction in the subjects' carotid vessels was performed before and after 30 infusions of E.D.T.A. using a Doppler ultrasound scanner. Overall intra-arterial obstruction decreased an average of 21%. This was highly statistically significant at p35

A study of 470 patients in Denmark was published in 1993 by Drs. C. Hancke and K. Flytlie. In this study 80 to 91% improvement was documented depending on the measurement used. Of special interest: 92 of these patients had been initially referred for surgery (27 for leg amputations and 65 for coronary bypass) but after undergoing Chelation Therapy only 10 of this group had to undergo surgery. (Only 3 had amputations and 7 went to bypass surgery.) This saved 24 legs, 58 open-chest surgeries and $3,000,000 of insurance money in Denmark.36

In 1994, Drs. Rudolph, Samuels, and McDonagh reported a dramatic improvement in a 59-year-old woman's visual fields after 30 Chelation treatments. This patient had been diagnosed with Map-Dot-Fingerprint dystrophy, a form of macular degeneration. Concomitantly her visual acuity was restored to normal after the treatments and 1-year follow-up revealed no relapse.37

Even studies that purport to prove that Chelation Therapy isn't effective, when carefully analyzed, reveal the efficacy of E.D.T.A. The study of Van Rij showed that 60% of patients with very severe peripheral vascular disease in fact improved after 20 infusions of E.D.T.A. And, in this study, the E.D.T.A. group was compared to a "placebo" group that in fact received thiamine, vitamin C and magnesium. This was not in fact a placebo and only serves to prove that the vitamins and minerals we routinely add to the Chelation solution in fact are also efficacious in improving circulation!38

Dr. H.J. Holliday, a vascular surgeon, published a case study in 1996 of a patient with recurrent carotid stenosis after an endarterectomy operation that he then chelated with E.D.T.A. This patient presented with an 80-85% stenosis of the right internal carotid artery and underwent an operation to remove the plaque. However, 2 years later the obstruction recurred to 65-70% and in 6 more months it had progressed to 70-75% again. The patient elected to undergo chelation therapy instead of another operation and after 20 chelation treatments the stenosis was reduced to 60-65% with a concomitant decrease in peak velocities with Doppler indicating an improvement in the hemodynamics at the site of obstruction. Dr. Holliday concluded that "E.D.T.A. chelation provides an exciting approach ... that reduces the degree of blockage".39

Dr. Majid Ali and his associates published a study in which 26 consecutive patients with ischemic heart disease who had failed to respond to various combinations of by-pass surgery, angioplasty and multiple drug therapies were treated with 20 or more infusions of E.D.T.A. Some of these patients were assessed with Thallium Myocardial Perfusion Scans before and after their treatments. Of the 6 patients who underwent these scans 5 showed definite improvement in myocardial perfusion (more blood flowing to the heart muscle in areas previously lacking such flow). Overall clinical improvement as judged by relief of symptoms was as follows: 61% excellent, 17% good, 13% moderate and 9% poor. This is obviously far better results than can be expected from a placebo effect and there was no mortality (death) during the course of the study.40

The question is always raised by patients and doctors alike: will Chelation Therapy unblock obstructed arteries? While there is no definitive proof at this time that is acceptable to the FDA, there are studies, which are highly suggestive that Chelation can do this. Drs. Rudolph and McDonagh treated a man with severe hypertension with a blockage to his left renal (kidney) artery. The patient underwent Chelation Therapy as an alternative to surgery. After 70 treatments there was a dramatic reduction of obstruction in the artery from 60-70% down to about 20% and his blood pressure normalized.45

The American College for Advancement in Medicine is working with doctors and hospitals worldwide to sponsor studies to document E.D.T.A. Chelation therapy as a viable treatment for arteriosclerosis and other diseases of aging.

In time we believe E.D.T.A. Chelation Therapy will become an accepted, "standard" procedure in the practice of medicine.

NOTE: Individuals wishing to obtain a compendium of scientific articles on E.D.T.A. Chelation therapy may obtain the following volume from the publisher. A Textbook on E.D.T.A. Chelation edited by E.M. Cranton. Forward by Linus Pauling, Ph.D. Journal of Advancement in Medicine, Volume 2: l/2, Spring/Summer 1989. Published by Human Sciences Press, Inc., 233 Spring Street, New York, New York, 10013–1578. 1-212-620-8473.

One can also access more information about and literature related to E.D.T.A. Chelation Therapy via the website of ACAM at

How is Chelation Therapy Given?

The Chelation agent, E.D.T.A. is administered intravenously in a solution of dilute salt water or in sterile water. Besides the E.D.T.A., the following substances are added to the bottle:

Vitamin C — This vitamin acts as an antioxidant and is needed to activate enzymes and assist in connective tissue synthesis and turnover.

Magnesium Sulfate — This mineral is added to counteract the effects of low calcium induced by E.D.T.A. and to replace magnesium, which is almost always deficient in the diet and in total body stores. Magnesium is needed to operate most enzyme systems and in particular, to improve heart function.

B-Complex Vitamins — These vitamins act as cofactors in all energy transformations in the body.

Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) — This vitamin is needed for most biochemical steps in amino acid metabolism, especially in the processing of the cardiotoxic substance known as homocysteine. Some theories of atherosclerosis hold that abnormal elevations of homocysteine initiate vascular disorders.

Hydroxycobalamin (Vitamin B12 — Cyanocobalamin) — This vitamin is needed for brain function, blood formation and in the synthesis of genetic material.

Procaine — This substance is added to inhibit burning at the site of infusion.

Heparin — This substance is added to prevent vein inflammation.

In addition, other materials such as trace minerals may be added in individual cases.

The I.V. needle is placed in a hand or arm vein and the solution is infused over a 2–4 hour period depending on how it is tolerated.

The patient will sit in a recliner chair during the treatment and may read, watch television, or just relax.

Are There Any Side Effects?

Side effects may be divided into "short term" and "long term". The "short term" effects occur during and within a day or two after the treatments. They may be divided into the five categories listed below:

1) Because E.D.T.A. is an acid, burning may occur at the site of the infusion. This can be alleviated by slowing down the infusion rate or adding more magnesium or procaine.

2) Dizziness, muscle spasm, and numbness of the hands, feet, or around the face may occur due to lowering of calcium. These are normal effects of lowering the blood calcium in some patients. These symptoms are easily corrected by slowing the infusion rate, adding extra magnesium, potassium, or calcium to the I.V. and are not in any way dangerous.

3) Some patients report symptoms of fatigue, dizziness, and slight nausea caused by the lowering of their blood sugar level. These symptoms can be avoided by eating a good meal before treatment. Patients are encouraged to bring snacks with them. Diabetic patients are most susceptible to this glucose imbalance and will often have to lower their insulin dosage during a course of treatment.

4) As with all detoxification treatments, symptoms such as joint pain, headaches, fatigue, and flu-like feeling may occur or become worse initially. In almost all cases, these side effects disappear after a few treatments.

5) Rarely a true allergy may occur to E.D.T.A. or one of the other components of the infusion leading to sneezing, nasal congestions, dizziness, or skin rash. By removing one or more of the ingredients from the bottle, we are able to eliminate these reactions in most cases. Allergy to the actual chelation agent E.D.T.A. is almost unknown.

Long term "side effects" or reactions to Chelation Therapy include the following:

1) The most serious complication of Chelation Therapy is kidney damage. We evaluate kidney function before and periodically during the treatments. If any diminished function is found before treatment, we use smaller doses of E.D.T.A. or treat less frequently.

Rarely, kidney function will be so poor that we have to recommend no Chelation.

If kidney function appears to deteriorate during a course of treatment we also reduce the dose or frequency. Occasionally, it is necessary to interrupt the treatment for a while.

Despite the risks to kidney function, the fact is, almost no patients experience damage to their kidneys as a result of Chelation and in fact, most patients with mild reduction of kidney function will improve during their Chelation Therapy. In thousands of infusions we have given, we have never seen permanent kidney damage result from Chelation Therapy. On the contrary, we have seen improvements in kidney function when the Chelation was administered prudently.

2) Like every drug, some of the E.D.T.A. is cleared through the liver. We measure liver function before and during treatment. We have never had a case of liver damage during therapy. If a patient comes in with cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis we may have to treat very slowly or not at all.

3) The most common long term adverse reaction to E.D. T.A. is the depletion of the essential metallic elements such as zinc, iron and manganese. This can result in fatigue, anemia, rashes, and allergic tendencies. These effects rarely occur because you will be prescribed mineral replacement therapy both to correct deficiencies and keep up with losses due to Chelation.

In 1999, Dr. Richard Anderson of the Nutrient Requirements and Functions Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Agriculture published an article based on research he did with me on patients treated at Waters Preventive Medical Center. We found that E.D.T.A. does not result in any net loss of copper or chromium. Prior to our study, because of in vitro (in test tubes and not in a biological system) experiments it was thought that the removal of copper and chromium would be effected by E.D.T.A. Chelation. We still usually ask patients to supplement with these essential elements because there is much evidence that they are deficient in a large segment of the adult population.

In 2001, Dr. Anderson and I published a follow-up study on some of my Chelation Therapy patients. In this study we documented that the average patient excreted seven (7) times the cadmium and forty (40) times the lead after as compared to before a chelation treatment. At the same time, the average patient retained over 80% of the magnesium added to the EDTA solution. The removal of poisonous metals such as cadmium and lead as well as the increased cardiovascular functioning produced a substantial increase in general health.

Finally, as this booklet goes to the printer, we are happy to report that the National Institutes of Health has announced the funding of a $29 million study on the treatment of coronary heart disease with EDTA Chelation Therapy. This study will be centered at the Miami Heart Institute and will be supervised by Cardiologist Gervasio Lamas, M.D. It will involve EDTA treatment of 2300 heart patients comparing EDTA to placebo. After 40 years of trying, we will finally get a U.S. Government sponsored study of Chelation Therapy that could lead to general acceptance of this treatment.47


Both short term and long term side effects can be evaluated by ongoing laboratory follow-up testing.

"Good" Side Effects

Improvements in metabolism and circulation often result in changes, which can appear to be "reactions" or "side effects". These include improvement in vision, which results in the current optical prescription needing a change, as well as, the need to decrease insulin requirements in diabetics.

How Many Treatments Are Needed?

This varies from case to case. Some medical doctors who began practicing Chelation medicine 15 years ago have themselves undergone as many as 500 treatments over the years.

We recommend an initial course of 30 treatments at no more than twice weekly. Most of our patients take one treatment per week.

After the initial course of 30 treatments, maintenance therapy is usually recommended. Recent studies in Holland have shown that the positive side effects on blood platelets lasts for about three weeks after an E.D.T.A. infusion. We generally recommend a treatment every three or four weeks after the initial series. In severe cases the initial series may extend far beyond 30 treatments and appropriate maintenance may be one treatment every two weeks.

Will Chelation Therapy Work By Itself?

You will only get a maximum response to your I.V. Chelation treatments if you do the following five things:

  1. Stop smoking.
  2. Change your dietary habits.
  3. Reduce stress
  4. Take your nutritional supplements as required.

Diet and Lifestyle

It is obvious to auto mechanics and farmers alike that the energy that is supplied to an engine, a field of corn or a dairy cow is the most important force in determining the efficiency and performance of any system — mechanical or biological. Should this important concept hold any less true for human beings?

Of course not. Week by week more scientific articles are published supporting the idea that nutritional imbalances are at the heart of diseases such as cancer, arteriosclerosis, arthritis, and other "diseases of aging".

Our aim is to get people back to eating real foods: vegetables, unprocessed meats, whole grains, raw nuts, seeds and fresh fruits. These have been the human diet for thousands of years. The middlemen food processors are actually a recent invention and claim to make our lives easier. In fact, they rob us of our health with their convenience foods and have helped create an enormously expensive medical industry.

Americans eat far too much sugar. There has been a lot of press about the "French Paradox," which is the fact that the French are leaner and have less heart disease than we do despite their eating large amounts of cheese, pastries and heavy wine consumption. Indeed, some researchers claim that the reduced cardiovascular mortality is a direct result of their wine consumption. Both the alcohol in the wine and the red pigments occurring in it have been claimed to be at the root of their decreased mortality. But, what very few write about is the French take in only about 15 pounds of sugar per year per capita, while Americans consume 10 times that! Which works out to be 150 pounds of sugar annually! Remember that every sugar molecule you consume that isn't converted to energy is stored as fat and thereby contributes to the American epidemics of obesity, diabetes and vascular disease.

Another difference between the French, and indeed the "Mediterranean Diet", and our diet generally is our lower consumption of vegetables. We all need to eat more green, yellow and orange vegetables. They are low in calories, high in vitamins, minerals and fiber and loaded with the health-protecting pigments of nature known as Bioflavonoids.

Diet should not be a highly confusing topic but rather should be based on common sense. We should be eating a diet of whole foods-fresh vegetables, fruits, unprocessed nuts and seeds, eggs, fish and lean meats. Unlike the Eskimo, our generally sedentary life-styles don't require large does of high-energy fats, so do trim the fat off your meat and try to eat the leanest cuts.


In regard to fat — NOT ALL FATS ARE CREATED EQUAL! Eskimos have virtually a 100% animal-product diet. They eat raw fat almost daily. Why don't they get clogged arteries and heart attacks? The type of fat they eat is protective against the arteriosclerosis process. These fats are known as Omega-3 oils and are found in nature in fish, game animals and plant material grown in cold, northern climates — walnuts, flax, and oats grown in northern regions.

( Canola Oil [Short for "Canadian Oil"] Warning — Rapeseed oil is poisonous to living things and is an excellent insect repellent. It is used for transmission fluid, engine oil and engine oil additives. "Tommy Talk Radio" Seqment )

The other major group of fatty acids is known as the Omega 6 family. These oily substances are found in vegetable oils from corn, safflower, sunflower, soybean and other seeds.

The last major family includes olive oil components and is called the Omega 9 group. It is the balance between these various fatty acids in our diet that ultimately has much to do with our health.

Every membrane of every cell of our body is made of millions of molecules of fatty acids. The structural integrity and biological functions of our cell membranes are dependent on the exact combinations of these fatty acid components.

Basically we in the western world are eating a far higher percentage of Omega 6 oils vs. Omega 3 oils in comparison to our ancestral diet or even our diet of a century ago. The ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3 in the modern diet is about 11:l. The ideal ratio and the ratio seen in "primitive" cultures where degenerative diseases are much more rare is in the realm of 1:l to 4:l .42 We are clearly feeding ourselves a deranged ratio of building blocks and we believe this has led to an increase in skin diseases, mental diseases, allergies, arteriosclerosis, arthritis and cancer.43

From a practical standpoint, people that consume a large amount of olive oil in their diet have a significant reduction in the rate of cancer and heart disease. In fact, the longest living people on the globe are the Greeks. Their diet contains about 37% of its calories as fats — but these are almost all Omega 9 oils from olives and Omega 3 oils from seafood. They also eat a large amount and variety of vegetables and freshly picked greens — many of the latter which we consider weeds! These include lambs quarters, pigweed, dandelion greens and purslane. The Greeks also eat lots of fresh fruit, legumes and large amounts of the cardio-protective vegetables garlic and onions. They eat meat products sparingly.

Despite all the theories of biomedical scientists about what we should eat, I believe we should judge medical theories with "outcome analysis". If you want to live a long health life, eat like a Greek.

There is one more area concerning fats that must be discussed at this point — hydrogenated vegetable oils and margarine. These chemically processed oils have been introduced into our diet only this century. They were created by the oil processing industry to increase the shelf life of vegetable oils and have been sold to the public as a "heart protective" food. This is one of the greatest fabrications ever perpetuated on the public — and sadly it was done with the support of the medical profession. Of course, the only information claiming health benefits for margarine and other partially hydrogenated oil products was found on the television set and other media. There is no scientific evidence for any health benefits for hydrogenated vegetable oil. On the other hand, there is a large body of scientific literature dating back to at least 1956 that these products are dangerous to health.44 In fact; at the time of this writing in early 2000 there is a movement by scientists inside and outside the government to require labeling margarine and other processed oils as a causative agent of heart disease and myocardial infarction!

The reason why hydrogenated oils are dangerous to biological systems is they contain, as a side effect of hydrogenation, substances known as "trans-fatty acids". These fatty acids differ in their properties from the naturally occurring fats found in cold-pressed, unprocessed seed oils. These trans-oils alter the normal structure of our cell membranes and "gum-up" the enzymatic machinery that metabolizes fatty acids. This also leads to alterations in the very important hormones known as prostaglandins. These hormones are made and destroyed almost instantly from the fatty acids in all of our cell membranes. However, they have profound effects on inflammatory reactions, cellular immunity, vascular constriction and dilatation and cholesterol metabolism, among many other functions.

In summary, a health promoting diet is based on fresh vegetables, fruits, and lean animal products including eggs, raw seeds and nuts and whole grain products. One should carefully avoid using the typical vegetable oils found in grocery stores. Instead, look for oils that clearly state that they are "cold-pressed" and specifically indicate they contain "no hydrogenated fats" or "no trans fatty acids". For cooking, olive oil is probably best, as it has been shown to be "heart healthy".


Human beings were meant to do some physical activity on a daily basis. Exercise should be considered a nutrient — or at least an essential factor for good health. It has recently been shown that even 3 hours of an activity such as walking every week will give one 75% of the potential health benefits of exercise.

Even if you are very debilitated, any physical movement will result in a dramatic improvement in your well-being. Short walks of l/4 to l/2 mile are a good start. Gradually increase this as you become more fit. Use shopping malls in the winter months or even the barn aisle if you have one. Another option for exercise is small "rebounders".

These are miniature trampolines and can be purchased in sporting goods or variety stores. If you feel too unsteady bounding on your feet, just sit on the rebounder and bounce up and down on your rear end. You will be surprised at how this gets your heart rate up and gets you breathing more deeply.

All forms of exercise cause more life-giving oxygen to be delivered to your tissues. During exercise natural chelating agents such as lactic acid are produced and many have toxic metal binding effects that lead to discharge of these poisons from the body. Exercise has also been proven to initiate the formation of new blood vessels in the heart and other muscles of the body. This is the process of angioneogenesis and leads to collateral circulation around obstructed vascular sites. In a real sense this represents a self-induced "bypass" procedure. The bottom line is that more blood is delivered downstream to the site beyond the plaques and the tissue thus supplied is revitalized and brought back to health!

The old phrase "use it or lose it" couldn't be more true from a medical standpoint. Please start some form of exercise today — it is just as important as diet, Supplements and chelation therapy and acts synergistically with them to effect improvements in health.


"Stress" is another area that we all need to deal with. It is now known that all forms of stress may slow the speed of recovery from illness. Stressors may increase the need for vitamins and other nutrients. This results from both increased requirements and increased loss of the elements in the urine. Thus, identifying the sources of stress and reducing the impact can speed wellness!

Most people think of stress as due to the job, family and other psychosocial forces. While these are certainly important components in stress causing factors, other environmental factors include the food we eat, exposure to pollutants in the air and work environment, artificial materials used in rugs, wallpaper, etc., additives to our foods and beverages, electromagnetic waves emanating from TV sets, computers and other electronic devices, financial pressures, lack of rewarding experiences in our work and play, addictive behavior patterns and persistent attitudes and beliefs which do not serve us well and are often acquired during our formative years.

Here again, quiet walks are helpful, meditation, Yoga and simply regular episodes of deep breathing are very effective. Living one day at a time and being thankful for all we have can reduce stress and produce a positive mental outlook. In some cases consultation with a therapist is needed to help us understand ourselves and change our ways of thinking and being.


Sleep and water are both major parts of diet and lifestyle. Few of us get enough of either. Our gland system recharges at night, so if we don't get enough sleep, we won't have balanced glad function. This is vitally important because the hormones secreted by our thyroid, adrenals and sex glands regulate our genetic material, which in turn is the program and system for manufacturing our body proteins and all other biochemical components of our tissues.


We are bombarded with multitudinous recommendations regarding what we should eat. I have tried to address this question from the standpoint of how the question is dealt with in the natural world. What do people drink in "primitive" hunter-gatherer cultures? What do animals in the wild drink?

The answer is simple: Water! Nothing more. There are no soda-pop factories or breweries in the rain forests of New Guinea or South America. Yes, people prepare herbal beverages but mainly for specific medicinal purposes.

The fact is our taste for fluids has been distorted by the use of soda pop, caffeinated beverages and alcohol. This fact was brought home hard on a medical doctor named F. Batmanghelidj when he was thrown into jail by the fundamentalist regime that had taken over Iran in 1979.

While in prison where he was deprived of all fluids except water for his own use, and where, as a prison doctor as well, there was a shortage of pharmaceutical medication necessitating his use of water for conditions such as peptic ulcer attacks, he discovered the healing power of water.46

In his book "YOUR BODY'S MANY CRIES FOR WATER", Dr. Batmanghelidj claims that chronic dehydration is a principal cause behind indigestion, hiatus hernia, arthritis, headaches, depression and high blood pressure, among other conditions. Many research studies have borne this idea out. A study presented at the European Society of Cardiology in Vienna in 1998 revealed that in a population of more than 30,000 men and women, the ones who drank more than 5 glasses of water per day had a dramatic reduction in the incidence of coronary heart disease, stroke and diabetes.

We have installed a distillation system for the drinking water at our clinic and during your chelation treatments we will serve you water and encourage you to drink all you can while you are in the office and at home.

Remember that the toxic metals we are chelating leave the body through the kidney system so extra water will hasten the flushing of these poisons out of your body. For your good health please drink at least 6 glasses (12 oz.) of water every day. You will notice a difference if you do this consistently for a number of weeks.

Water consumption is probably the most neglected area of health. Water is the basis of life on this planet and approximately 70% of our body weight consists of water. It is literally the medium in which our bio-molecules live and our tissues and organs cannot be healthy without proper water balance.

We recommend you try to drink a large glass of pure water every time you think you need a cigarette, a cup of coffee, a soda pop or other sweet or alcoholic beverage.

When I say "pure" water, I mean to imply that unless you have a good reverse osmosis filter or distilling apparatus connected to your water supply, you probably don't have pure water. Distilled water is "hungry" water — it will flush out impurities from our body. Clean Artesian or spring water is also fine as long as you can document its purity.

NOTE: The notable exception to this advice occurs in patients who have been given a fluid restriction by their doctor because of severe congestive heart failure. These cases are dealt with individually by Dr. Waters.

[ The scientific method to determine if you are consuming enough water is very simple and involves the use of a Specific Conductance Meter. An inexpensive meter can be obtained and used to test the solids content of your urine. If the meter reads above 12,000 microsiemens — the value of our blood — you need to be drinking more water.]

It is the combination of dietary changes, nutritional supplements, regular exercise, stress reduction, and intravenous E.D.T.A. Chelation Therapy, which leads to improved health. It is important for you to be committed to all aspects of the program to insure maximum probability of success.

What Can I Expect?

Most doctors who give Chelation Therapy report that at least 75% of the patients experience definite improvements in their symptoms. These improvements include increased exercise tolerance, reduction in chest pain, improved vision, reduced joint pains, and better memory.

The other 25% of the patients usually also report some positive changes but these might not be so dramatic. In addition, there is often a delay in the improvements of 3 to 6 months. Indeed one Chelation therapist has shown that improvement in circulation to the lower extremities could not be proven with Doppler studies after 30 treatments but when these studies were repeated 6 months after the 30th treatment, a marked improvement in blood flow was shown.

We don't know why there is a delay in results in some cases, but believe that the Chelation Therapy may "set into motion" certain biological effects, which then continue after the Chelation Therapy has stopped. In this regard, experimental evidence from animal studies has shown that bone-forming cells begin to increase their activity leading to a net increase in bone density after a series of E.D.T.A. Chelation treatments.14 This effect continues even after the E.D.T.A. infusions have ceased.

Some patients have noted improvements after as few as two treatments, while others haven't seen results until 20 or more treatments. Very severe or long-standing conditions often take longer to respond to Chelation. Again, we can't emphasize too strongly:


If you can't stop the cigarette habit, you should not waste your time and money on Chelation Therapy. You will probably be disappointed.


Chelation Therapy with E.D.T.A. is a relatively new treatment for many of the diseases of aging. It has been documented to be safe and effective in numerous studies done around the world over the past 40 years. When used in conjunction with lifestyle modifications, improved diet and increased exercise most patients can expect improvement in medical conditions caused by circulatory impairment.


1) Studies at University of California. Papers read at American Heart Association Meeting. Washington D.C., 1988

2) Williams, D.R., (Ed), An introduction to Bio-inorganic Chemistry. Charles Thomas Publishers, Springfield, Illinois. 1976

3) Halstead, B.W., The Scientific Basis of EDTA Chelation Therapy. Golden Quill Publisher, Inc., Loma Linda, California. 1979 (Update available through ACAM)

4) Clarke, Sr., N.E., "Arteriosclerosis, Occlusive Vascular Disease and EDTA." American Journal of Cardiology, August 1960 (VI #2), P. 233-236.

5) Boyle, A.J., Clarke, N.E., Mosher, R.E., and McCann, D.S. "Chelation Therapy in Circulatory and Sclerosing Diseases". Federation Proceedings, September 1961 (20 #3 Part II Supp. #10) P. 243-251.

6) Clarke, N.E., Clarke, C.N., Mosher, R.E., "Treatment of Angina Pectoris with Disodium Ethylene Diamine Tetracetic Acid", American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 1955 (22), P. 142-149.

7) Clarke, N.E., Clarke, C.N., Mosher, R.E., "The 'In Vivo' Dissolution of Metastatic Calcium. An Approach to Arteriosclerosis". American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 1955 (22), P. 142-149.

8) Foreman, H., "Use of Chelating Agents in Treatment of Metal Poisoning (with special emphasis on lead)". Federation Proceedings, September 1961 (20 #3 Part II Supp. #10) P. 191-196.

9) Brieger, H., "The Use of Chelating Agents in Occupational Medicine", Metal-Binding in Medicine: 132. Seven, M.J. (Ed), 1960, J.B. Lippincott Philadelphia. P 200-204.

10) Nodine, J., "Wdetic Acid Therapy", Journal of the American Medical Association, April 27, 1970 (212 #4) P. 628.

11) Breecher, Arlene, Forty Something Forever. Medex Press, P.O. Box 683, Herndon, Virginia.

12) Walker, M. Chelation Therapy. 1976 Press, Seal Beach, California. 1980.

13) Gordon, G. and Walker, M., The Chelation Answer, M. Evans and Company, Inc. NY, New York. 1982.

14) Raymond, J.P. et al. "Effects of EDTA and HYPOCALCEMIA on Plasma Prolactin, PTH and Calcitonin in Normal and Parathyroidectomized Individuals". Francis and Anthony D'Anna International Symposium, Clinical Disorders of Bone and Mineral Metabolism. Henry Ford Hospital. Dearborn, Michigan. May 8, 1983.

15) Meltzer, L.E., Ural, E., Kitchell, J.R., "The Treatment of Coronary Artery Heart Disease with Disodium EDTA", Metal Binding in Medicine, 132, Seven, J.J. (Ed), 1960, J.B. Lippincott. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, P. 43-47.

16) Lamar, C.P., "Chelation Endarterectomy for Occlusive Arteriosclerosis". Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1966 (XIV #3), P. 272-294.

17) Lamar, C.P. "Chelation Therapy of Occlusive Arteriosclerosis in Diabetic Patients", Angiology, 7964 (15), P. 379-394.

18) Lamar, C.P., "Calcium Chelation in Arteriosclerosis, Nine Years Clinical Experience", 74th Annual Meeting of American College of Angiology, San Juan, 1968.

19) Blumer, Walter, M.D. and Cranton, Elmer, M.D., "Ninety Percent Reduction in Cancer Mortality After Chelation Therapy with EDTA". Journal of Advancement in Medicine, Vol. 2: Number 1/2, P. 183-188. Spring/Summer, 1989

20) Olwin, J.H., Koppel, J.L., "Reduction of Elevated Plasma Lipid Levels in Arteriosclerosis Following EDTA Therapy", Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine Proceedings, 1968 (128 #3-4). P. 1137-l 140.

21) Jick, S., Karsh, R., "The Effect of Calcium Chelation on Cardiac Arrhythmias and Conduction Disturbances", The American Journal of Cardiology, September 1959, P. 287-293.

22) Kitchell, J.R., Palmon, F. Jr., Aytan, N., Meltzer, L.E., "The Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease with Disodium EDTA, A Reappraisal", The American Journal of Cardiology, April 1963, P. 501-506.

23) Casdorph, H.R., "EDTA Chelation Therapy, Efficacy in Arteriosclerotic Heart Disease". Journal of Holistic Medicine 3:53-59. 1981.

24) Casdorph, H.R. "EDTA Chelation Therapy II, Efficacy in Brain Disorders", Journal of Holistic Medicine. 3: 1 01 -117.1981.

25) McDonagh, E.W., Rudolph, C.J., Cheraskin, E., "An Oculocerebrovasculometric Analysis of the Improvement in Arterial Stenosis following DETA Chelation Therapy". Journal of Holistic Medicine, 4:21-23. 1982.

26) McDonagh, E.W., Rudolph, C.J., Cheraskin, E., "The Effect of EDTA Chelation Therapy Pius Supportive Multivitamin - Trace Mineral Supplementation Upon Renal Function: A Study in Serum Creatinine". Journal of Holistic Medicine, 4:146-1 51. 1982.

27) McDonagh, E.W., Rudolph, C.J., Cheraskin, E., "The Effect of EDTA Chelation Therapy Plus Supportive Multivitamin Trace Mineral Supplementation Upon Renal Function: A Study in Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)", Journal of Holistic Medicine, 5163-l 71. 1983.

28) Casdorph, H.R., Farr, C.H., "EDTA Chelation Therapy III: Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Occlusion, an Alternative to Amputation". Journal of Holistic Medicine, 5:3-1 5. 1983.

29) McDonagh, E.W. et al. "Effect of EDTA Chelation Therapy Plus Multivitamin Trace Mineral Supplementation Upon Vascular Dynamics: Ankle/Brachial Doppler Systolic Blood Pressure Ratio". Journal of Holistic Medicine. 7:16-22. 1985.

30) Rubin, M., et al (Eds) "Proceedings of the III International Chelation Conference". Georgetown University, Washington D.C. July 19-22, 1989.

31) Deucher, G.P., "Heavy Metals. Chelation Therapy, Free Radicals and Human Diseases". Angiologie, (63): 1776, Oct. 1987.

32) Bederka, J.P., Luekken, T.M., Brudno, S., Waters, R. S., "Elemental Balances in the Human", Trace Subst. Environmental Health, 19, 304-l 3, 1985.

33) Day vs. Aetna Life Insurance Company (87CV12710, Elyria Municipal Court, Lorain County, Ohio). (Copies of Judgment Entry are available from CANAH, P.O. Box B-12, Richlandtown, PA 18955).

34) Olszewer, Efrain, MD, Carter, James S., MD, DrPH. "EDTA Chelation Therapy: A Retrospective Study of 2,870 Patients". Journal of Advancement in Medicine, Vol. 2: Number 1/2, 197-211, Spring/Summer 1989.

35) Rudolph, C.J. DO, PhD, McDonagh, E.W. DO, Barber, R.K., BS. "A Nonsurgical Approach to Obstructive Carotid Stenosis Using EDTA Chelation". Journal of Advancement in Medicine, Vol. 4: Number 3, 157-l 66. Fall 1991.

36) Hancke, C., MD and Flytlie, K., MD, "Benefit of EDTA Chelation Therapy in Arteriosclerosis: A Retrospective Study of 470 Patients". Journal of Advancement in Medicine, Vol. 6: Number 3, 161-l 71. Fall 1993.

37) Rudolph, C.J., DO, PhD. Samuels, R.T., OD, McDonagh, E.W., Do. "Visual Field Evidence of Macular Degeneration Reversal Using a Combination of EDTA Chelation and Multiple Vitamin and Trace Mineral Therapy", Journal of Advancement in Medicine, Vol. 7: Number 4, 203-212. Winter 1994.

38) Van Rij, A.M. et al. "Chelation Therapy for Intermittent Claridication: a double blind, randomized, controlled trial". Circulation 90. 1194-l 199. 1994.

39) Holliday, J.H., MD, "Carotid Restenosis: A Case for EDTA Chelation", Journal of Advancement in Medicine. Vol. 9: Number 2. 95-99. Summer 1996.

40) Ali, Majid, MD, et al. "Improved Myocardial Perfusion in Patients with Advanced lschemic Heart Disease with an Integrative Management Program, Including EDTA Chelation Therapy". Journal of Integrative Medicine. Vol. 1: Number 1. 113-l 45. Winter 1997.

41) Anderson, Richard A., PhD, Bryden, Noella A. and Waters, Robert S., MD. "EDTA Chelation Therapy Does Not Selectively Increase Chromium Losses". Biological Trace Element Research. Vol. 70. 265-272. 1999.

42) Eaton, S.B., Eaton III, S.B., et al. "An Evolutionary Perspective Enhanced Understanding of Human Nutritional Requirements". Journal of Nutrition, 126. 1232-40. June 1996.

43) Eaton, S.B., Shostak, M. et al. "The Paleolithic Prescription: A Program of Diet and Exercise and a Design for Living: 39. New York: Harder and Row, 1988.

44) Enig, M. "Trans Fatty Acids in the Food Supply: A Comprehensive Report Covering 60 Years of Research", 2nd Edition. Enig Associates, Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland. 1995.

45) Rudolph, C.J. and McDonagh, E.W. "Renal Artery Stenosis Reversal on a Hypertensive Individual". Journal of Advancement in Medicine, Vol. 12: Number 3. 193-200. Fall 1999.

46) Batmanghelidj, F. MD, "Your Body's Many Cries for Water", Global Health Solutions, Inc., Falls Church, VA. Telephone: (703) 848-2333. 1995.

47) Waters, R.S., Bryden, N.A., Patterson, K.Y., Veillon, C., and Anderson, R.A. "EDTA Chelation Effects on Urinary Losses of Cadmium, Calcium, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Lead, Magnesium and Zinc". Biological Trace Element Research. Vol. 48,207-221. 2001.